Author Guidelines

Failure to follow these instructions may result in publication delays if your manuscript is accepted.


Download Templates:

Original Article, MS-Word

Case Report/Case Series, MS-Word

Conflict of Interests Form, PDF

General Guidelines

  1. We truly understand the extra challenges faced by authors whose native language is other than English. We do however remind you that all manuscripts submitted to BJOA must be written in a clear and concise English. Only material that has not been published previously (either in print or electronically) and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, with the exception of an abstract published in conference proceedings, will be considered for publication.
  2. Both American and UK spelling is accepted. All acronyms must be spelled out in the first instance in the abstract and body of the manuscript.
  3. Word counts are not mandatory. However, we recommend that a research article should not exceed 7,500 words and case reports should not exceed 4,000 words.
  4. Use International Systems of Units (SI) measurement and its abbreviation are mandatory throughout the manuscript.
  5. Generic drug names must be used throughout the manuscript.
  6. The preferred format for a manuscript is Microsoft Word (.doc, .docx) format, with a double spaced 12-pts, Times New Roman font (including abstract and reference section) in 3 cm margins (all direction), with no page numbers or line numbers, and in a single-column format.
  7. Do ensure that all tables and figures are cited in the manuscript.
  8. Cite references in the order they appear in the manuscript. It should be typed in superscript numerals with no parentheses (e.g. 1). For sequential references of three or more, use a hyphen between the first and the last reference (e.g. 2-4). Numbers should be placed after punctuation marks. (e.g. This is a sample.5) For the detail of the references guide, please refer to the reference section below.


According to the International Committee Medical of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) guidelines, authorship credit should be based on:

  1. Substantial contributions to conception and design, data acquisition, or data analysis and interpretation;
  2. Drafting the article or critically revising it for important intellectual content;
  3. Final approval of the version to be published; and
  4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

The complete statement can be found at:

The journal does not permit the changing/adding/deleting of authors after the submission of the paper. Changing the author sequence after the manuscript is submitted also prohibited. So write down the author sequence wisely. Those who made the greatest contribution are generally listed first, and if all co-authors contribute similarly in the manuscript alphabetical order may also be used.


Peer review

This journal operates a double-blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final.

This journal uses a double-blind review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. To facilitate this, please include the following separately:

Title page (with author details): The title page must be made in a separate file, only contains the manuscript title, the names of the author(s) and affiliation(s). Please find the detailed description of the title page to the title page section below.

Blinded manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables, and any acknowledgments) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations.


Title page

A title page should contain:

  1. Title of the manuscript. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible. Redundant words such as “case reports” or “review of the literature” should be omitted, and ostentatious words such as “unique case” or “first report of” should be avoided.
  2. Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You are advised to write the name completely with a good arrangement without turning it back. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the complete address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
  3. Corresponding author: name, affiliations, physical address, and an e-mail address. This will indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
  4. A SCOPUS ID(s) and/or ORCID ID(s) for all listed authors whenever available


Abstracts should not exceed 300 words. For original research scripts, we require a structured abstract, which includes: Background (including the aim of the study), Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion. For the case report article, the abstract should be unstructured. An abstract must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.


We required 3–6 keywords. For your paper to be found more easily when it goes online, we recommend that the keywords should not contain the words that are already presented in the title.


State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, while avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Patients and Methods (Material and Methods)

For studies involving human, please type as Patients and Methods. For studies not involving human, like laboratory or animal study, please type as Material and Methods. 

Manuscripts reporting studies on human subjects, human data or tissue, or animals must include a statement on ethics approval. Please include the name of the committee that approved the study.

For studies reporting for human subjects, we also require a clear statement that all subjects involved in the study had provided written and informed consent to be included in the study.

In a case where details or images relating to the subject participants are included, authors must obtain written informed consent to publish the details from the subjects. If this is not possible, written informed consent must be taken from the subject’s parent or legal guardian. Authors must explicitly state this here. Authors should be able to provide the journal with the signed consents should the Editor require the author to do so.


For results involving tables and figures, we recommend that the maximum number for each table and figures are four. Figures and tables that are reproduced from any other publications must include a written permit from both its author and publisher to be re-published in our journal should your manuscript be accepted.


This section should present the theoretical, empirical, and applied implications of the results, not simply repeat the findings. The study's limitations should be explicitly recognized. A combined Results and Discussion section may be appropriate.


The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.


Any funding and/or grants received by one of the authors in relation to this study must be declared here. Please describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in any of the stages from study design to submission of the paper for publication. Please state if the sponsor(s) had no such involvement.

Your relationship with other people or organizations may influence the way you interpret data or present the information your study demonstrated. This is known as a competing interest.

If the author(s) has nothing to declare, please type in this section: The authors report nothing to declare.




Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables should be placed next to the relevant text in the article. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.




Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). References should be listed according to the Vancouver Style. They should be numbered in the order that they are cited in the text. It should be typed in superscript numerals with no parentheses (e.g. 1). For sequential references of three or more, use a hyphen between the first and the last reference (e.g. 2-4). Numbers should be placed after punctuation marks. (e.g. This is a sample.5) Titles of journals should be set in italics and abbreviated according to the style used in Index Medicus. For unlisted journals, complete journal titles should be provided. If the authors of the journal are more than 3 authors, format the references according to this instruction (3 authors, et al).




1. Standard Journal Article:


  1. Bone RC, Fisher CJ, Cemmer TP, et al. Sepsis syndrome: A valid clinical entity. Crit Care Med. 1989; 17(4): 389-393. DOI: 10.4103/2249-4472.132824
  2. Ilyas A, Ishtiaq W, Assad S, et al. Correlation of IVC Diameter and Collapsibility Index With Central Venous Pressure in the Assessment of Intravascular Volume in Critically Ill Patients. Cureus. 2017; 9(2): 1020-1025. Available from:


2. Standard Book with Authors:


  1. Civetta JM, Taylor RW, Kirby RR. Critical Care. Third Edition. Philadelphia, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 1996


3. Standard Book with Editors:


  1. Norman IJ, Refern SJ (Eds). Mental Health Care for Elderly People. New York, Churchill Livingstone, 1996


4. Standard Chapter in a Book:


  1. Phillips SJ, Whisnant JP. Hypertension and stroke. In: Hypertension: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Management. Second Edition. Laragh JH, Brenner BM (Eds). New York, Raven Press, 1995, pp 465-478


5. Standard Web Site/Electronic Format:


  1. Marion DW, Domeier R, Dunham CM, et al. Practice management guidelines for identifying cervical spine injuries following trauma. Available from: Accessed July 1, 2000




Original Research Articles

Maximum words: 6,000

Max tables: 4

Max Figures: 6

Original articles should be arranged in the following order:

  1. Title (without author and affiliation)
  2. Abstract (with keywords)
  3. Introduction
  4. Patients (Materials) and Methods
  5. Tables and figures
  6. Results
  7. Discussion
  8. Conclusion
  9. Acknowledgments
  10. References


Review Article

Maximum words: 4,000

Max tables: 4

Max Figures: 6

Review articles are comprehensive, critical reviews of research topics and/or methodological approaches that are highly relevant to investigators in the field of the latest research. The review should be interpretative rather than a summary that describes various approaches that are available as well as their relative merits, limitations, and specific applications. All review articles undergo the same peer-review and editorial process as original research reports.

A literature review should be structured like any other essay:

  1. Introduction: define your topic and provide an appropriate context for reviewing the literature; establish your reasons for reviewing the literature; explain the organization of the review; and state the scope of the review.
  2. The main body: organize the literature according to common themes; provide insight into the relationship between your chosen topic and the wider subject area; move from a general, wider view of the literature being reviewed to the specific focus of your research.
  3. Conclusion: summarise the important aspects of the existing body of literature; evaluate the current state of the literature review; identify significant flaws or gaps in existing knowledge; outline areas for future study; link your research to existing knowledge.


Case Reports

Max authors: 4

Max words: 3,000

Max tables: 2

Max figures: 4

Case reports should present new, interesting and rare cases. They should be distinctive, describing an abundant diagnostic or therapeutic challenge and providing a learning point for the readers. Cases with clinical significance or implications will be given priority. Case reports usually describe 1-3 patients. Case Reports must be authored by up to four authors. Case Reports are shorter than most other types of articles. Case Reports should comply with CARE guidelines.

Unlike original articles, case reports may follow the structure below:

1. The title

2. Abstract

3. Introduction

4. Case description/Case Report

5. Discussion

6. Conclusion

7. References

The case description or summary is the focus of the case report. The case is best presented in chronological order and in enough detail for the reader to establish his or her own conclusions about the case's validity. The current medical condition and medical history, including relevant family history, should be clearly described in chronological order, typically comprising clinical history, physical examination findings, investigative results, including imaging and laboratory results, differential diagnosis, management, follow-up, and final diagnosis. All important negative findings should also be provided. The author's own interpretation or inferences should be avoided in the body of a case report.

Tables/figures could be used to reveal chronological findings or to compare observations using different methods.




Screening for Plagiarism Policy

Image result for crosscheck crossref

BJOA has a policy of screening for plagiarism. We use Anti-Plagiarism Software "iThenticate" to check the authenticity article

Copyright and License

  • Copyright on any open access article in a journal published by DiscoverSys is retained by the author(s).
  • Authors grant DiscoverSys a license to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher.
  • Authors also grant any third party the right to use the article freely as long as its integrity is maintained and its original authors, citation details and publisher are identified.
  • The Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 formalizes these and other terms and conditions of publishing articles.